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Uttar Pradesh Map

About UP

Uttar Pradesh is known for its rich history and cultural heritage, with ancient and medieval empires having flourished here. It has also played a significant role in India’s freedom struggle. The state is bordered by Nepal to the north, the Indian states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh to the northwest, Haryana, Delhi and Rajasthan to the west, Madhya Pradesh to the south, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand to the southeast, and Bihar to the east. Uttar Pradesh is home to several important cities, including Lucknow, the state capital, and Agra, which is famous for the Taj Mahal. The state has a diverse geography that ranges from the Himalayas in the north to the fertile Gangetic plains in the south. It has a rich tradition of arts and handicrafts, music, and cuisine, which attract visitors from all over the world. Uttar Pradesh is also an important center of industry, agriculture, and education in India.

Districts of Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh is a large state in northern India, with a total of 75 districts. Each district has its own unique features and characteristics, including major cities, historical sites, and cultural attractions. Some of the most well-known districts include Allahabad, Lucknow, Kanpur, Varanasi, Agra, and Meerut. The districts are important administrative units in the state and are responsible for maintaining law and order, implementing government programs and schemes, and promoting local development. Overall, the districts of Uttar Pradesh are a diverse and vibrant reflection of the rich cultural and historical heritage of the state.


Uttar Pradesh has a rich and ancient history, with several empires and dynasties having flourished here over the centuries. Some of the major empires and dynasties that have ruled over this region include:

  1. The Vedic period (1500 BCE – 600 BCE): The region was inhabited by the Vedic people, who composed the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.
  2. The Maurya Empire (321 BCE – 185 BCE): The Mauryan Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya, was one of the largest and most powerful empires in ancient India. Its capital, Pataliputra (present-day Patna), was located in present-day Bihar, but the empire also controlled large parts of present-day Uttar Pradesh.
  3. The Gupta Empire (320 CE – 550 CE): The Gupta dynasty is considered a “golden age” of Indian civilization and culture. The empire was known for its art, literature, and scientific achievements.
  4. The Mughal Empire (1526 CE – 1857 CE): The Mughal dynasty, founded by Babur, ruled over a large part of India, including present-day Uttar Pradesh. The Mughal emperors were great patrons of art and architecture, and several of their monuments, including the Taj Mahal and the Red Fort, are located in Uttar Pradesh.
  5. The British Raj (1858 CE – 1947 CE): After the fall of the Mughal Empire, Uttar Pradesh came under British rule. The region played an important role in India’s freedom struggle, with several key events, such as the Indian Rebellion of 1857, having taken place here.

These empires and dynasties have left behind a rich legacy of art, architecture, literature, and culture, which can still be seen in the state’s many historical monuments and sites.


Physical features

    • Uttar Pradesh is located in the northern region of India and is the fifth-largest state in terms of area.
    • The state shares borders with several other Indian states, including Bihar, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan.
    • The northern part of the state is dominated by the Himalayan mountain range, which includes several peaks over 7,000 meters high.
    • The southern part of the state is mostly flat, consisting of the fertile Gangetic plains.
    • Some of the major physical features of the state include the Ganges River, the Yamuna River, and the Vindhya and Satpura mountain ranges.
    • The state is also home to several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, including Dudhwa National Park, Sohagi Barwa Wildlife Sanctuary, and Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary.

Rivers and their importance:

    • The Ganges River is the most important in Uttar Pradesh and is considered sacred in Hinduism.
    • The river flows for about 1,080 kilometers through the state and is used for irrigation, transportation, and other economic activities.
    • The Yamuna River is another important river in the state, and it is a tributary of the Ganges.
    • Other important rivers in the state include the Ghagra, the Betwa, and the Saryu.

Climate and weather patterns:

    • Uttar Pradesh has a subtropical climate, with hot summers and cool winters.
    • The state experiences three main seasons: summer (March to June), monsoon (July to September), and winter (November to February).
    • The summer months are hot and dry, with temperatures often exceeding 40 degrees Celsius in some parts of the state.
    • The monsoon season brings heavy rainfall to the state, which can sometimes lead to flooding and other weather-related problems.
    • The winter months are generally cool and pleasant, with temperatures ranging from 10-25 degrees Celsius depending on the location in the state.

Culture and Traditions

Uttar Pradesh’s culture and traditions are a unique blend of its ancient and modern heritage and continue to be an important part of the state’s identity.

  1. Literature and language: Uttar Pradesh has a rich literary tradition, with several famous poets and writers hailing from the state. The language spoken here is Hindi, which is the official language of the state. Urdu, Awadhi, and Bhojpuri are also commonly spoken.
  2. Music and dance: Uttar Pradesh is famous for its music and dance traditions. Some of the popular music forms of the state include Thumri, Dadra, and Kajri. Kathak, a classical dance form, originated in the state and is still widely practiced here.
  3. Cuisine: The cuisine of Uttar Pradesh is diverse and reflects the state’s multi-cultural heritage. Some of the popular dishes of the state include kebabs, biryani, chaat, and sweets like jalebi and peda.
  4. Festivals: Uttar Pradesh celebrates a variety of festivals throughout the year. Some of the major festivals include Holi, Diwali, Eid, Dussehra, and Maha Shivaratri. The Kumbh Mela, which is held every 12 years, is one of the largest religious gatherings in the world and attracts millions of people to the state.
  5. Arts and crafts: Uttar Pradesh is home to several famous handicrafts, including chikankari embroidery, zardozi work, and brassware. These handicrafts are often passed down through generations and are an important part of the state’s cultural heritage.
  6. Folk traditions: Uttar Pradesh has a rich tradition of folk art and culture. Brij ki Holi, which is celebrated in the Mathura and Vrindavan regions of the state, is a popular folk festival. Nautanki, a form of folk theatre, is also widely performed in the state.

Tourism in uttar pradesh

Uttar Pradesh offers a wide variety of attractions for tourists, ranging from ancient historical sites to natural parks and religious pilgrimage sites.

Here are some of the major tourist attractions in the state:

  1. Taj Mahal: The Taj Mahal, located in Agra, is one of the most famous landmarks in the world and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal.
  2. Varanasi: Varanasi is an ancient city and is considered one of the holiest cities in India. The city is situated on the banks of the Ganges River and is known for its temples, ghats, and spiritual atmosphere.
  3. Lucknow: The capital city of Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow, is known for its rich cultural heritage and cuisine. The city is famous for its exquisite Awadhi cuisine and its historic buildings, including the Bara Imambara and Chota Imambara.
  4. Allahabad: Allahabad, now known as Prayagraj, is located at the confluence of three sacred rivers, the Ganges, Yamuna, and Saraswati. The city is known for its Kumbh Mela, which is held every 12 years, and is one of the largest religious gatherings in the world.
  5. Mathura and Vrindavan: These two cities are closely associated with the life of Lord Krishna and are popular pilgrimage destinations for Hindus. The Banke Bihari Temple, ISKCON Temple, and Prem Mandir are some of the major attractions in the area.
  6. Dudhwa National Park: Dudhwa National Park is located in the Terai region of Uttar Pradesh and is home to several endangered species of animals, including the Bengal tiger, Indian rhinoceros, and swamp deer.
  7. Chitrakoot: Chitrakoot is a pilgrimage site located on the banks of the Mandakini River. It is believed to be the place where Lord Rama spent a significant part of his exile and is a popular destination for Hindu pilgrims.


The economy of Uttar Pradesh is diverse, with a mix of traditional agrarian industries and growing manufacturing and service sectors. The state government has made significant investments in infrastructure development and is focused on promoting job creation and economic growth.

  1. Agriculture: Uttar Pradesh is primarily an agrarian state and is the largest producer of food grains in India. The major crops grown in the state include rice, wheat, sugarcane, and potatoes.
  2. Manufacturing: Uttar Pradesh has a growing manufacturing sector, which includes industries such as textiles, leather goods, chemicals, and engineering products. The state is also home to several industrial clusters, such as the Kanpur leather cluster, Agra footwear cluster, and Moradabad brassware cluster.
  3. Services: The service sector is also a significant contributor to the economy of Uttar Pradesh. The state is home to several important industries such as tourism, IT and software, and financial services.
  4. Infrastructure: The state government has made significant investments in infrastructure development in recent years, including the construction of new highways, airports, and industrial parks. The Uttar Pradesh State Industrial Development Corporation (UPSIDC) is responsible for promoting industrial development in the state.
  5. Employment: The unemployment rate in Uttar Pradesh is higher than the national average. The state government has launched several initiatives to promote job creation, including the establishment of new industrial parks and the expansion of the state’s tourism industry.

Politics and Administration

politics and administration in Uttar Pradesh are complex and multi-layered, with a wide range of stakeholders and institutions involved in governance and decision-making. The state is governed by a Chief Minister and a cabinet of ministers and is divided into districts and local governance bodies for effective administration.

  1. Legislative Assembly: Uttar Pradesh has a unicameral legislature, consisting of the Vidhan Sabha, or Legislative Assembly. It has 403 members who are elected for a term of five years.
  2. Chief Minister: The Chief Minister is the head of the state government and is responsible for the administration of the state. The Chief Minister is appointed by the Governor, who is the constitutional head of the state.
  3. Cabinet of Ministers: The Chief Minister is assisted by a cabinet of ministers, who are responsible for various departments such as finance, education, health, and agriculture.
  4. Political Parties: Uttar Pradesh has a multi-party system, with several national and regional parties vying for power. The major political parties in the state include the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), Indian National Congress (INC), Samajwadi Party (SP), Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), and Rashtriya Lok Dal (RLD).
  5. District Administration: The state is divided into 75 districts, each of which is headed by a District Magistrate (DM) and a Superintendent of Police (SP). The district administration is responsible for maintaining law and order and implementing various government schemes and programs.
  6. Panchayati Raj: Uttar Pradesh has a three-tier Panchayati Raj system, which includes village councils (gram panchayats), block councils (kshetra panchayats), and district councils (zilla panchayats). This system is responsible for local governance and development in rural areas.